Bohuslav Martinu: Born in a church tower in the Bohemian village of Policka, Bohuslav Martinu was a prolific enough composer as a child, before he entered Prague Conservatory as a violin student in 1906. His interest, however, lay in composition. Failing to complete his course at the Conservatory or at the Prague Organ School, to which he had been transferred, he worked as an orchestral player before moving, in 1923, to Paris. The approach of the German armies in 1940 forced him to make his way, as best he could, to the United States, where he was encouraged by commissions from Koussevitzky. Political events in Czechoslovakia prevented his intended return after the war, and he spent his final years abroad, dying in Switzerland in 1959. Martinu was an immensely prolific and varied composer. His sixteen operas include The Greek Passion, after Kazantzakis, Ariadne, after Neveu, and the radio opera Comedy on the Bridge. Ballet scores include Spalicek, based on fairy-tales and nursery rhymes. An impressive list of orchestral compositions includes six symphonies, the first of them written for Koussevitzky, who commissioned one a year. There are concertos for a variety of instruments, including five for piano and a useful Rhapsody-Concerto for viola and orchestra. The variety of his terms of reference may be seen in his Frescos of Piero della Francesca, The Parables and his earlier Villa by the Sea, based on the evocative painting of Böcklin. His Czech origins are generally identifiable in his music, which nevertheless reflects the influence also of France, while returning at times to earlier musical traditions. Notable choral works by Martinu must include his oratorio on the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh and the Biblical The Prophecy of Isaiah.
There is a bewilderingly large amount of chamber music by Martinu, duos, trios, quartets, quintets, sextets, septets, octets and nonets. Among these the seven string quartets deserve particular mention, in addition to the works for violin and piano and three cello sonatas. The operas of Martinu include works expressly designed for broadcasting, television or the cinema. His last opera, staged after his death, was The Greek Passion, based on Kazantzakis. Various ballet scores, many unperformed, form part of an interesting if neglected repertoire.
Martinu left six symphonies, the last with the title Fantaisies symphoniques. There are symphonic poems and descriptive pieces and a number of concertos. These last include five piano concertos, the last, written in 1957, with the title Fantasia concertante, a Violin Concerto, a Double Violin Concerto and two Cello Concertos.
In addition to a large number of shorter piano pieces of all kinds, Martinu wrote a Fantaisie and other pieces for two pianos, as well as music for harpsichord, leaving his organ Vigilia unfinished at the time of his death in 1959.
Choral works by Martinu include the remarkable oratorio Gilgamesh, based on the ancient Babylonian epic of that name. There are choral works of biblical derivation and a number of choral arrangements of traditional Czech, Slovak and Moravian material. His songs include Magic Nights, settings of poems translated from the Chinese.